Monday, 22 October 2018

Types of Scanning Probe Microscopy – Advanced Materials 2019 Conference @Rome @Italy May 22-23, 2019

There are several different types of scanning probe microscopes, the most prominent of which are atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). There are also many other types, which are listed at the end of this article.
Both AFM and STM record an image of the subject by moving the probe tip of the microscope along the sample, within several nanometres of the surface but without making physical contact.
The atomic force microscope works by measuring the electrostatic force between the tip and the specimen. There are several different subtypes of this microscope, including:
  • Contact AFM
  • Non-contact AFM
  • Dynamic contact AFM
  • Tapping AFM
  • AFM-IR
atomic-force-microscope-fundamental-principles-4-638
This type of microscope has a very high resolution to the order of fractions of a nanometer. The image is constructed based on touching the surfaces of the specimen with the probe of the microscope.
An AFM can measure the strength of the force, create an image of the surface, and manipulate the atoms on the surface of the specimen, depending on the situation.
A thin laser beam that focuses onto the cantilever and reflects onto a detector, which acts as a sensor. The cantilever bending is measured to determine the distance of the sample from the probe.
A scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measures the electrical current between the tip and the specimen.
Scanning microscopes move the probe tip back and forth over the surface of the sample to create an image that can be visualized.
STM is based on a simpler principle than AFM, but it can only be used with conducting samples. The metal probe tip and the sample are both connected to a voltage supply so that a tunnel current occurs when the tip is close to the sample.
Scanning+Tunneling+Microscopy+(STM)
Throughout the scan, the tip moves up and down to maintain the same current and, therefore, distance from the sample. The movement of the tip is translated into the image from the scanning tunneling microscope.
There are various other types of scanning probe microscopes including:
  • Ballistic electron emission microscopy (BEEM)
  • Chemical force microscopy (CFM)
  • Conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM)
  • Electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (ECSTM)
  • Electrostatic force microscopy (EFM)
  • Fluidic force microscopy (FluidFM)
  • Force modulation microscopy (FMM)
  • Force modulation microscopy (FOSPM)
  • Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM)
  • Magnetic force microscopy (MFM)
  • Magnetic resonance force microscope (MRFM)
  • Near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM)
  • Photon scanning tunneling microscopy (PSTM)
  • Photothermal microscopy (PTMS)
  • Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM)
  • Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM)
  • Scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM)
  • Scanning gate microscopy (SGM)
  • Scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHGM)
  • Scanning ion-conductance microscopy (SICM)
  • Scanning SQUID microscopy
  • Scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM)
  • Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM)
  • Scanning tunneling potentiometry (STP)
  • Scanning voltage microscopy (SVM)
  • Scanning single-electron transistor microscopy (SSET)
  • Spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SPSM)
  • Synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SXSTM)
To know More about nanotechnology grab the chance and attend the forthcoming Conference : 5th International Conference on Advanced Material Research and Nanotechnology.
Dates of the Conference : May 22-23, 2019

Venue : Rome, Italy

For more Details :  Advanced Materials 2019


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Wednesday, 17 October 2018

Nanotechnology today and tomorrow – Advanced Materials 2019 Conference

While the future applications of nanotechnology are definitely promising, there are already a wide array of products and services that utilize nanomaterials. The term “nanotechnology” is often associated with futuristic advances in medical technology and chemistry, but its use cases are much more subtle and widespread than that, encompassing everyday innovations such as:

image
  • The composite materials within plastic bottles, which are safer, better insulated and cheaper to manufacture than some types of glass.
  • The lithium iron phosphate batteries frequently included in devices such as rechargeable power tools; they have higher power densities and superior safety profiles compared to more common designs using lithium cobalt oxide.
  • The nanoparticles incorporated into some articles of clothing for the reduction of static, prevention of sunburn and resistance to both stains and water damage.
  • The key ingredients in skincare and cosmetic products for enabling deeper delivery of vitamins to slow the aging process and possibly enhance appearance.
  • The stretchable gold that allows for the fabrication of flexible circuit boards capable of fitting into cutting-edge devices, such as Internet of Things (IoT) sensors and aerospace equipment.
Dates of the Conference : May 22-23, 2019

Venue : Rome, Italy

For more Details :  Advanced Materials 2019

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With these current uses in mind, where can nanotechnology go from here? The next phases in nanotech are likely to broaden its reach in the treatment of diseases (especially cancer), in addition to the improvement of renewable energy sources and agriculture. These efforts are undoubtedly heavy lifts, but nanoscientists have already begun work that could lead to major breakthroughs.
For example, death rates from the four most common cancer types have steadily declined since peaking in 1991, but more progress can still be made. Nanotechnology may offer a new path forward for effective cancer treatment. Similarly, it may be the best route for extending current gains in solar energy capture and storage, as well as food production, processing and packaging.
To know More about nanotechnology grab the chance and attend the forthcoming Conference : 5th International Conference on Advanced Material Research and Nanotechnology.

Monday, 15 October 2018

Composited_1000
Composite materials are becoming more important in construction of aerostructures. Air craft parts are made from composite materials such as fairings,spoilers and flight controls were developed for their weight saving over aluminium parts. New generation aircrafts are designed with all composite FUSELAGE and wing astructures. These are also  the advanced polymer matrix composites. They have the desired physical and chemical properties. These are generally characterised and detected by their unusually high stiffness or modulus of elasticity. These Advanced composite matrix are used in REINFORCED MATRIX COMPOSITION.

To know More about nanocomposites grab the chance and attend the forthcoming Conference : 5th International Conference on Advanced Material Research and Nanotechnology.
Dates of the Conference : May 22-23, 2019

Venue : Rome, Italy

For more Details :  Advanced Materials 2019


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Thursday, 11 October 2018

Nanorobots and Its Medical Applications – Advanced Materials 2019

Nano Robotics is the technology of creating machines or robots close to the microscopic scale of a nanometer (10−9 meters). Nanorobotics refers to nanotechnology – an engineering discipline for designing and building nanorobots. These devices range from 0.1-10 micrometers and are made up of nano scale or molecular components. As no artificial, non-biological Nano robots have yet been created, they remain a pretending concept. The names nanorobots, nanoids, nanites or nanomites have also been used to describe these hypothetical devices.
Nano robots can be used in different application areas such as medicine and space technology. Nowadays, these nanorobots play a crucial role in the field of Bio-Medicine, particularly for the treatment of cancer, cerebral Aneurysm, removal of kidney stones, elimination of defected parts in the DNA structure, and for some other treatments that need utmost support to save human lives.

1. Nanorobotics in Surgery

Surgical nanorobots are introduced into the human body through vascular systems and other cavities. Surgical nanorobots act as semi-autonomous on-site surgeon inside the human body and are programmed or directed by a human surgeon. This programmed surgical nanorobot performs various functions like searching for pathogens, and then diagnosis and correction of lesions by nano-manipulation synchronized by an on-board computer while conserving and contacting with the supervisory surgeon through coded ultrasound signals.Nowadays, the earlier forms of cellular nano-surgery are being explored. For example, a micropipette rapidly vibrating at a frequency of 100 Hz micropipette comparatively less than 1 micron tip diameter is used to cut dendrites from single neurons. This process is not ought to damage the cell capability.
surgery

2. Diagnosis and Testing

Medical nanorobots are used for the purpose of diagnosis, testing and monitoring of microorganisms, tissues and cells in the blood stream. These nanorobots are capable of noting down the record, and report some vital signs such as temperature, pressure and immune system’s parameters of different parts of the human body continuously.

3. Nanorobotics in Gene Therapy

Nanorobots are also applicable in treating genetic diseases, by relating the molecular structures of DNA and proteins in the cell. The modifications and irregularities in the DNA and protein sequences are then corrected (edited). The chromosomal replacement therapy is very efficient compared to the cell repair. An assembled repair vessel is inbuilt in the human body to perform the maintenance of genetics by floating inside the nucleus of a cell.Supercoil of DNA when enlarged within its lower pair of robotic arms, the nanomachine pulls the strand which is unwounded for analysis; meanwhile the upper arms detach the proteins from the chain. The information which is stored in the large nanocomputer’s database is placed outside the nucleus and compared with the molecular structures of both DNA and proteins that are connected through communication link to cell repair ship. Abnormalities found in the structures are corrected, and the proteins reattached to the Deoxy Nucleic Acid chain once again reforms into their original form.

4. Nanorobots in Cancer Detection and Treatment

The current stages of medical technologies and therapy tools are used for the successful treatment of cancer. The important aspect to achieve a successful treatment is based on the improvement of efficient drug delivery to decrease the side-effects from the chemotherapy.Nanorobots with embedded chemical biosensors are used for detecting the tumor cells in early stages of cancer development inside a patient’s body. Nanosensors are also utilized to find the intensity of E-cadherin signals.
5. Nanodentistry is one of the topmost applications as nanorobots help in different processes involved in dentistry.These nanorobots are helpful in desensitizing tooth, oral anesthesia, straightening of irregular set of teeth and improvement of the teeth durability, major tooth repairs and improvement of appearance of teeth, etc.

To know More about Nanorobotics grab the chance and attend the forthcoming Conference : 5th International Conference on Advanced Material Research and Nanotechnology.

Dates of the Conference : May 22-23, 2019

Venue : Rome, Italy

For more Details :  Advanced Materials 2019


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Monday, 8 October 2018

Different Types of Nanorobots and Applications – Advanced Materials 2019

nanorobotics-1-638
There are many different types of nanorobots .
Smallest engine ever created: “A group of physicists from the University of Mainz in Germany recently built the smallest engine ever created from just a single atom. Like any other engine, it converts heat energy into movement — but it does so on a smaller scale than ever seen before. The atom is trapped in a cone of electromagnetic energy and lasers are used to heat it up and cool it down, which causes the atom to move back and forth in the cone like an engine piston.”
3D-motion nanomachines from DNA: “Mechanical engineers at Ohio State University have designed and constructed complex nanoscale mechanical parts using ‘DNA origami’ — proving that the same basic design principles that apply to typical full-size machine parts can now also be applied to DNA — and can produce complex, controllable components for future nanorobots.
Nanoswimmers: “ETH Zurich and Technion researchers have developed an elastic “nanoswimmer” polypyrrole (Ppy) nanowire about 15 micrometers (millionths of a meter) long and 200 nanometers thick that can move through biological fluid environments at almost 15 micrometers per second…The nanoswimmers could be functionalized to deliver drugs and magnetically controlled to swim through the bloodstream to target cancer cells, for example.”
Ant-like nanoengine with 100x force per unit weight: “University of Cambridge researchers have developed a tiny engine capable of a force per unit-weight nearly 100 times higher than any motor or muscle. The new nano-engines could lead to nanorobots small enough to enter living cells to fight disease, the researchers say. Professor Jeremy Baumberg from the Cavendish Laboratory, who led the research, has named the devices ‘actuating nanotransducers’ (ANTs). ‘Like real ants, they produce large forces for their weight…’ ”
Sperm-inspired microrobots: “A team of researchers at the University of Twente (Netherlands) and German University in Cairo (Egypt) has developed sperm-inspired microrobots, which can be controlled by oscillating weak magnetic fields.” They will be used in complex micro-manipulation and targeted therapy tasks.
Bacteria-powered robots: “Drexel University engineers have developed a method for using electric fields to help microscopic bacteria-powered robots detect obstacles in their environment and navigate around them. Uses include delivering medication, manipulating stem cells to direct their growth, or building a microstructure, for example.”
Nanorockets: “Several groups of researchers have recently constructed a high-speed, remote-controlled nanoscale version of a rocket by combining nanoparticles with biological molecules…The researchers hope to develop the rocket so it can be used in any environment; for example, to deliver drugs to a target area of the body.”
To know More about Nanorobots grab the chance and attend the forthcoming Conference : 5th International Conference on Advanced Material Research and Nanotechnology.
Dates of the Conference : May 22-23, 2019

Venue : Rome, Italy

For more Details :  Advanced Materials 2019


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Thursday, 4 October 2018

5 of the latest advancements in Nanotechnology


1. Health: Drug Delivery 
nano
Today, cancer patients have three treatment options: surgery, chemotherapy or radiation. While the methods vary, the goal for the three treatment options is the same: eradicate the targeted cancer cells with minimal damage to normal tissue.
However, according to the National Cancer Institute, “All three methods risk damage to normal tissue or incomplete eradication of the cancer.” For example, during chemotherapy, cytotoxic drugs are released to kill cancerous cells, but often kill healthy cells during the process. This process can result in side effects including hair loss, nausea, pain, nervous system effects, appetite loss and fatigue. Treatments and reactions vary from patient to patient, but these side effects are frequent and common in most cancer patients.
Nanoparticles for chemotherapy drug carriers have made some of the greatest advancements in cancer treatment. By using nanocarriers to treat patients, treatments can focus on targeting cancerous cells and limit the damage to healthy cells.
Currently, the world population is growing at 1.13 percent per year, with an estimated 7.4 billion people in the world today. Experts predict this number will continue to rise to more than 90 billion by 2050, with the largest population increase expected to occur in less developed countries (Population Reference Bureau). These predictions have world leaders, including the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, anticipating significant increases in food demand and rising pressure for healthy crops in developing countries.
In response to these growing population concerns, scientists in the nanotechnology and nanoagriculture fields are focused on determining how nanosized particles can increase crop and livestock productivity. While nanoagriculture is a more recent application of nanotechnology, the benefits are clear with its “potential to protect plants, monitor plant growth, detect plant and animal diseases, increase global food production, enhance food quality and reduce waste.” (Nanotechnology in Agri-Food Production)
3. Water Treatment: Safe Purification
According to the World Health Organisation, “2.6 billion people—half the developing world—lack even a simple ‘improved’ latrine and 1.1 billion people have no access to any type of improved drinking water.” This lack of access to clean, safe water poses dire health risks to much of the world’s population, including: death from diarrheal disease, schistosomiasis infection, and intestinal parasites.
Scientists and engineers are focused on applying nanotechology to resolve these issues and make water safe and purified.
4. Diseases: Early Detection
Nanotechnology applications for early disease detection are gaining a significant amount of traction and attention. Essentially, scientists are exploring the use of nanoparticles to raise a warning or “biomarker” if a cancerous tumor or other disease is found. Since these nanoparticles carry several peptides, in theory, it should send numerous biomarkers to indicate that a disease is present. Early detection of diseases like Alzheimer’s and cancer allows treatments and, potentially, a cure to begin sooner.
5. Energy Storage: Solar Power
Solar power is the future of energy storage, but it comes with a hefty price tag. As of 2014, solar energy accounts for less than one percent of electricity in the United States and it costs twice as much to produce compared to natural gas (National Center for Policy Analysis). Despite the costs associated with solar energy, the benefits are significant, including sustainability and low maintenance.
In an effort to accelerate solar power advancements, researchers are applying nanotechnology to solar energy. For example, nanoparticles “have been shown to enhance the absorption of light, increase the conversation of light to electricity, and provide better thermal storage and transport (National Nanotechnology Initiative).” With these advancements, nanotechnology has the potential to improve solar energy efficiency and reduce costs.
As today’s researchers continue to make significant advancements across a range of industries, the nanotechnology field is expected to make great strides in the near and long-term future. STEM-focused universities that offer nanotechnology degree programs provide students the opportunity to gain real-world experience and hands-on applied research, enabling the next wave of nanotechnology advancements.
To know More about Nanotechnology in Solar Cells grab the chance and attend the forthcoming Conference : 5th International Conference on Advanced Material Research and Nanotechnology.
Dates of the Conference : May 22-23, 2019

Venue : Rome, Italy

For more Details :  Advanced Materials 2019


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Wednesday, 3 October 2018

Nano-Electronic Devices and Materials – Advanced Materials 2019 @Rome @Italy May 22-23, 2019

Nano materials and devices

Study of organic materials for nano junctions, transistor and light emitting devices. Development of nano devices by e-beam writing.
  • Molecular beam epitaxial growth of nanoscale semiconductors for electronic, photonic, and biochemical sensing applications
  • III-nitride nanowire heterostructures, including nanowires, quantum dots, and micro/nanotubes
  • Nanowire-based nanophotonic devices, including light emitting diodes, lasers, solar cells, thermoelectric devices, and photodetectors
  • Artificial  photosynthesis on nanowire arrays, including one-step solar-to-hydrogen conversion and photoreduction of carbon dioxide
  • Covalent and non-covalent functionalization of graphene field effect transistors for gas sensing, pH sensing, bolometry, thermoelectrics and other applications.
  • Graphene, graphene/boron-nitride heterostructures and suspended graphene for microwave electronics and other applications
  • Semiconductor heterostructures for cryo-refrigeration and spin caloritronics
  • Graphene/nano-particle composites for applications such as Li-ion battery anodes
To know More about Nanotechnology in Solar Cells grab the chance and attend the forthcoming Conference : 5th International Conference on Advanced Material Research and Nanotechnology.
Dates of the Conference : May 22-23, 2019

Venue : Rome, Italy

For more Details :  Advanced Materials 2019

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Sunday, 30 September 2018

Carbon Nanotubes – Advanced Materials 2019

A significant nanoparticle discovery that came to light in 1991 was carbon nanotubes. Where buckyballs are round, nanotubes are cylinders that haven’t folded around to create a sphere. Carbon nanotubes are composed of carbon atoms linked in hexagonal shapes, with each carbon atom covalently bonded to three other carbon atoms. Carbon nanotubes have diameters as small as 1 nm and lengths up to several centimeters. Although, like buckyballs, carbon nanotubes are strong, they are not brittle. They can be bent, and when released, they will spring back to their original shape.
One type of carbon nanotube has a cylindrical shape with open ends, as shown in the following figure.
carbon nanotube
A carbon nanotube.
Another type of nanotube has closed ends, formed by some of the carbon atoms combining into pentagons on the end of the nanotube, as shown in the following figure.
A carbon nanotube with closed ends.
A carbon nanotube with closed ends.
The properties of nanotubes have caused researchers and companies to consider using them in several fields. For example, because carbon nanotubes have the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any known material, researchers at NASA are combining carbon nanotubes with other materials into composites that can be used to build lightweight spacecraft.
Carbon nanotubes can occur as multiple concentric cylinders of carbon atoms, called multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCTs) and shown in the following figure. Logically enough, carbon nanotubes that have only one cylinder are called single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCTs). Both MWCT and SWCT are used to strengthen composite materials.
MWCNT
A multi-walled carbon nanotube.
For More Details about the Carbon Nanotubes visit : Advanced Materials 2019
Brochure Details : https://advancedmaterials-research.pulsusconference.com/conference-brochure
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Types of Scanning Probe Microscopy – Advanced Materials 2019 Conference @Rome @Italy May 22-23, 2019

There are several different types of  scanning probe microscopes , the most prominent of which are atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scann...